Chandrayaan-3: India’s Moon Lander Vikram Aims for Historic Lunar South Pole Landing

In a remarkable endeavor, India stands poised to etch its name in history as it aims to achieve an unprecedented feat – becoming the first nation to successfully land near the Moon’s enigmatic south pole. This ambitious mission, named Chandrayaan-3, carries the hopes of not only the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) but also the global scientific community. As the anticipation mounts, let’s delve into the significance of this mission, its objectives, and the challenges it faces.

Exploring the Lunar South Pole

The focus of Chandrayaan-3’s mission is multifaceted. Foremost among its objectives is the quest for water-based ice, a pivotal discovery that could pave the way for future human habitation on the Moon. The Moon’s south pole, shrouded in perpetual darkness, holds an intriguing promise. Scientists speculate that the vast expanses of shadowed regions could potentially harbor water in the form of ice. Such a discovery would revolutionize our understanding of lunar resources and dramatically alter the trajectory of space exploration.

The Pursuit of History

If Chandrayaan-3 accomplishes its mission, India will secure its place in an exclusive club. Only three countries, namely the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China, have achieved the feat of a soft landing on the Moon. However, the Moon’s south pole has remained an elusive destination, as previous missions have focused on the equatorial regions. India’s aspiration to achieve a lunar landing in this uncharted territory is a testament to its scientific prowess and unwavering determination.

A Journey of Redemption

Chandrayaan-3 follows in the footsteps of its predecessor, Chandrayaan-2, which embarked on a similar quest in 2019. Regrettably, the mission ended in disappointment as the Vikram lander crashed during its attempt to touch down near the Moon’s south pole. This setback, while disheartening, only fueled India’s resolve to succeed. Now, all eyes are fixed on the Chandrayaan-3 mission as it seeks redemption and aims to accomplish what was once a missed opportunity.

The Components of Chandrayaan-3


The Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft comprises three integral components: an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. The orbiter serves as a communication hub and continues to orbit the Moon, relaying vital data back to Earth. The lander, named Vikram after ISRO’s visionary founder Vikram Sarabhai, houses the 26kg rover known as Pragyaan, a Sanskrit term signifying wisdom. This rover holds the key to unlocking the mysteries of the lunar surface.

The Countdown to Touchdown

The culmination of Chandrayaan-3’s mission lies in its anticipated soft landing on the lunar surface. Scheduled to commence its descent at 17:45 Indian Standard Time on a historic Wednesday, the lander is poised to make its touchdown attempt at 18:04 local time. These crucial moments prior to landing are fraught with challenges. The Moon’s south pole terrain is rugged, marked by craters and boulders, making the descent a nail-biting endeavor. With experts dubbing this phase as “15 minutes of terror,” the world awaits in suspense.

Unveiling the Lunar Secrets

Should the Chandrayaan-3 mission achieve its objective, ISRO is expected to unveil a trove of images captured from the lunar surface. These images promise to offer unprecedented insights into the Moon’s enigmatic south pole. The data gathered by the rover and relayed by the orbiter could potentially reshape our understanding of lunar geology, resource availability, and the prospects of future human presence on the Moon.

The Global Watch

As the world collectively holds its breath, the BBC News will provide live coverage of the pivotal landing attempt. Viewers around the globe will have the opportunity to witness this historic moment, projected to occur around 13:30 British Summer Time. The outcome of Chandrayaan-3’s mission will undoubtedly influence the trajectory of space exploration, fostering scientific collaborations and inspiring the next generation of explorers.

Exploring Chandrayaan-3: India’s Lunar Lander’s Ambitious Mission to the Moon’s South Pole


India’s relentless pursuit of space exploration is once again poised to reach a momentous milestone with the Chandrayaan-3 mission. This audacious endeavor seeks to achieve what has never been done before: a successful landing near the Moon’s mysterious south pole. As the mission unfolds, let’s delve into the intricacies of Chandrayaan-3, its key objectives, challenges, and the excitement it has stirred across the nation.

The Gradual Descent: A Calculated Journey

As the descent of the lander commences, a meticulous process unfolds. Nilesh M Desai of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) revealed that the lander’s velocity will be gradually reduced from its initial speed of 1.68 kilometers per second as it descends. By the time it reaches a height of 800 meters, the lander’s speed will be nearly zero. This measured approach ensures a controlled landing and minimizes the risks associated with the Moon’s challenging terrain.

Choosing the Perfect Landing Spot

At a height of 150 meters, a critical decision is made regarding the lander’s final landing location. If deemed unsuitable, the lander has the flexibility to adjust slightly to the left or right, seeking a more optimal landing spot. However, in the event that these adjustments prove futile, an emergency mode will be activated. This contingency plan is designed to facilitate a safe landing, underlining ISRO’s commitment to the mission’s success.

Unveiling the Lunar Rover

Once the dust settles and the lander achieves its momentous landing, the stage is set for the six-wheeled lunar rover to emerge. Ejected from the lander’s belly, the rover embarks on its mission to explore the Moon’s surface. Navigating through rocky terrains and craters, the rover plays a pivotal role in gathering crucial data and capturing images. These findings are then relayed to the lander, which subsequently transmits them to the orbiter for transmission to Earth.

Imprinted Legacy: Lunar Sojourn of the Rover

The rover’s journey across the lunar landscape is not just a scientific endeavor; it’s also a symbolic one. The wheels of the rover proudly bear ISRO’s logo and emblem, leaving distinct imprints on the Moon’s soil as it embarks on its mission. This gesture adds a touch of humanity and symbolism to the technological marvel, representing our presence and aspirations on the lunar surface.

A Nation’s Excitement and Anticipation

The Chandrayaan-3 mission has ignited a wave of enthusiasm across India. From every corner of the country, wishes for the mission’s success have poured in. The anticipation has reached a fever pitch, with millions, including schoolchildren, eagerly awaiting a live telecast of the landing. This palpable excitement reflects not only India’s scientific prowess but also the collective dreams of a nation reaching for the stars.

A Legacy of Preparation

The confidence exuded by ISRO’s chief, Sreedhara Panicker Somanath, is rooted in meticulous preparation. The lessons learned from the Chandrayaan-2 mission’s challenges were not in vain. Extensive data analysis and simulation exercises were conducted to identify and rectify glitches. With multiple contingency plans in place, the mission is backed by a robust framework to ensure its success.

Unveiling Lunar Mysteries: Scientific Endeavors


Chandrayaan-3 aspires to achieve more than a successful landing; it aims to advance our understanding of the Moon’s enigmatic nature. Armed with five scientific instruments, the lander and rover will delve into the Moon’s physical characteristics, atmospheric properties, and even tectonic activity beneath the surface. These insights promise to unlock secrets that have eluded us for centuries.

Embracing Lunar Day and Night

The timing of Chandrayaan-3’s landing is strategic. Aligned with the beginning of a lunar day, the mission capitalizes on the Moon’s unique day-night cycle. With a day on the Moon spanning 28 Earth days, the lander and rover will bask in 14 days of uninterrupted sunlight, charging their batteries for operation. However, as night falls, their activities will cease as their batteries discharge. The question remains: will they spring back to life with the next lunar dawn?

A Global Lunar Interest

India’s endeavors are part of a global fascination with the Moon. Multiple countries are directing their efforts towards lunar exploration, making it a burgeoning frontier for scientific discovery. The Moon, often dubbed a gateway to deep space, holds mysteries that continue to captivate scientists and space enthusiasts alike.

A Step Closer to the Unknown

Chandrayaan-3 embodies humanity’s insatiable curiosity and our innate drive to explore the unknown. Its success would mark a monumental stride in unraveling the Moon’s mysteries and expanding our understanding of the cosmos. As India’s scientific community, the nation, and the world hold their breath, Chandrayaan-3 stands as a beacon of human ingenuity and determination.


Chandrayaan-3’s audacious mission embodies human ingenuity, determination, and the pursuit of knowledge. The journey to the Moon’s south pole represents a symbolic triumph over adversity, and the quest for water ice opens new horizons for lunar exploration. Regardless of the outcome, India’s efforts have already left an indelible mark on the annals of space exploration.


  • Is Chandrayaan-3 India’s third lunar mission? Yes, Chandrayaan-3 marks India’s third mission to the Moon.
  • Why is the lunar south pole significant? The lunar south pole is significant due to the possibility of water-based ice, which could support future human habitation.
  • What happened during Chandrayaan-2’s attempt? Chandrayaan-2’s lander, Vikram, crashed during its landing attempt near the Moon’s south pole in 2019.
  • How does Chandrayaan-3 differ from Chandrayaan-2? Chandrayaan-3 focuses solely on achieving a successful soft landing and does not include an orbiter.
  • What time can I watch the landing attempt live? The live coverage of the landing attempt is expected around 13:30 BST.
  • What is Chandrayaan-3’s objective? Chandrayaan-3 aims to achieve a soft landing near the Moon’s south pole and gather crucial data.
  • How will the rover navigate the lunar surface? The rover will carefully navigate rocky terrains and craters to collect data and images.
  • Why is the rover’s logo embossed on its wheels? The rover’s wheels bear ISRO’s logo, leaving imprints on the lunar soil during its exploration.
  • What makes the lunar day-night cycle unique? A lunar day spans 28 Earth days, providing 14 days of sunlight followed by a 14-day night.
  • What significance does Chandrayaan-3 hold for India? Chandrayaan-3 represents India’s determination to make substantial scientific discoveries and contribute to lunar exploration.

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